Quantum superposition is a fundamental principle of quantum mechanics. It states that two (or more) quantum states can be added together ("superposed") and the result will be another valid quantum state. Conversely, it also notes that every quantum state can be represented as a sum of two or more other distinct states.
In quantum computing, superposition means that a value can exist in several states simultaneously, having a value of 0, 1, and 0,1 at the same time.
What does that mean to non-quantum experts? Let’s use a simple example, a coin toss. When you flip a coin, the result has a single value - its heads, or its tails. Whether you look at it or not (aka, measure it) – it has to be one of those two values.
In the quantum world, results or states do not exist until you measure them. Until you look down to see the coin (measure the value) it has no result or state. It could have any or all of its potential states at the same time.
Now think about complex optimizations, say the famous traveling salesman problem. In the quantum world, the salesman could be in superposition, meaning at many places simultaneously. Why? Because quantum mirrors nature, where the interaction of multi-dimensional factors results in more than one probabilistic state. Instead of focusing on one and only result, as classical systems do, quantum empowers a diversity of results, any of which can and will solve your traveling salesman problem, simply because you have the power to experience and model multiple probable states and their values.
That means you get better insights into all probabilistic outcomes, any of which can help your business. Instead of one result that may or may not be that effective.